Texas Best Gas And Electric

Due to the enhanced usage of all-natural gas quickly after deregulation, new-era energy tools such as wind power and also smart-grid technology were substantially aided. Texas' first "eco-friendly portfolio standard"-- or requirement that the state's energies obtain a specific amount of their power from eco-friendly energy like wind-- was authorized right into law in 1999, as component of the exact same regulation that decontrolled the electric market.
Over the past summer season, the general public Utilities Payment of Texas has been frustrated by Retail Energy Providers making use of prices tricks that rip off Texas consumers right into high monthly expenses at its Power to Pick web site. The PUC of Texas' ideal solution was to tweak some sort setups, restrict the variety of REP plans, as well as supply a "series of straightforward PDFs and also videos intended to lead and also notify the client." The chairman has even just recently stated that if the PUCT can not identify an option, after that the commission may simply shut down the Power to Choose site.

In this free market competing electrical energy sellers acquire electricity wholesale from private power generators to sell at retail to about 80% of Texas locals. The partnership between merchants as well as generators is governed by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas, or ERCOT, which tries to balance the power grid's electrical energy supply and demand by buying small quantities of power at 15-minute periods throughout the day.


Comparison Sites For Energy Suppliers Texas

There are various alternatives for term sizes in the Texas energy market. Different term sizes typically have various rate points, so if you're extra flexible with the size of your contract, you could get a more affordable price. If you prefer to stay clear of a long-term dedication while longer agreements usually offer the benefit of longer-term price security, contracts with much shorter term sizes are wonderful.
Therefore, 85% of Texas power consumers (those served by a firm not possessed by an energy or a district cooperative) can pick their power service from a variety of retail electrical suppliers (REPs), including the incumbent utility. The incumbent utility in the location still possesses and keeps the neighborhood power lines (and also is the firm to call in the occasion of a power interruption) as well as is not subject to deregulation. Consumers served by cooperatives or metropolitan energies can pick an alternative ASSOCIATE only if the utility has "chosen in" to deregulation.
Electricity Companies Texas
Variable-rate strategy: A variable-rate strategy suggests the rate you pay for your electrical power may change based on the market price of energy. Variable-rate plans are adaptable due to the fact that you are not secured right into a contract; nonetheless, you'll pay a higher cost in high-demand periods like summer season.
Fixed-Rate plan: With a fixed-rate plan, you'll lock in an electrical energy price for the term of your contract. If the rate security of a fixed-rate plan seems like the finest alternative for you, secure in your electrical power price, which gives complimentary electrical energy.
The power to choose supply rates from retail power companies in Texas extends to services, not simply residents. Entrepreneur who appreciate the lower line needs to absolutely take into consideration shopping about. To purchase Texas electric prices for a business, call us with your power use info or submit our basic informative type so an energy agent can contact you with a totally free customized quote.
Texas has electrical energy intake of $24 billion a year, the greatest among the U.S. states. Its yearly consumption is equivalent to that of Terrific Britain as well as Spain, and also if the state were an independent country, its electrical energy market would be the 11th biggest worldwide. Texas produces the a lot of wind electricity in the U.S., yet additionally has the highest possible Co2 Emissions of any state. Since 2012, Texas domestic electrical power rates ranked 31st in the USA and also ordinary monthly residential electrical expenses in Texas were the fifth highest in the country.
For instance, customers for Texas power plans in the TX, can find 12-month prepare for 6.9 cents/kWh in February; by June, electrical energy rates had enhanced 29 percent to 9.5 cents/kWh. As of very early September, 12-month strategies were up once more, to 10.2 cents/kWh-- a 7.5 percent hike from June and also a 49 percent rise simply because February.
By deregulating the state's energy market, the Texas Us senate offered components the power to select. The process of energy deregulation in Texas took apart the utilities' monopoly over the electrical market as well as urged clients to explore their energy choices.
In the first decade of retail electric deregulation in Texas, the market experienced remarkable modifications in both metrics. By the end of 2012, there were 45 retail electric service providers offering 258 various rate strategies to household consumers in that market. Comparable boosts in the number of retail electric service providers as well as offered strategies have actually been understood in various other decontrolled power market areas with the state.

In Texas, the ordinary house makes use of an average of 77 million Btu of electrical power per year, which is around 14% less than the nationwide average. Damaging these statistics down even additional programs us that power usage in the ordinary Texan residence is 26% more than the remainder of the United States, however this isn't a lot greater than a number of various other states that are closest to Texas. The typical overall house bill per year is $1,9217 when it comes to cost. This quantity places among the highest possible throughout America, but various other states that generally see skyrocketing temperatures in the summer period aren't far behind.

According to a 2014 record by the Texas Coalition for Affordable Power (TCAP), "deregulation price Texans about $22 billion from 2002 to 2012. And residents in the decontrolled market pay costs that are considerably more than those who reside in components of the state that are still controlled. TCAP located that the average consumer living in one of the areas that opted out of deregulation, such as Austin and San Antonio, paid $288 much less in 2012 than customers in the deregulated areas."
Numerous retail power suppliers in Texas want to be your selection for power. Because the power market opened up, more and more electrical energy service providers have gone into the market with various strategies as well as products. Firms offer a plethora of electrical power strategies as well as advantages so clients can find the electricity strategy that finest fits their requirements. If the rate security of a fixed-rate strategy appears like the finest choice for you, secure in your power price, which gives totally free electrical energy.
We support for consumers as well as examine carriers in the Texas electrical power market for features as well as features that normal energy customers may miss, such as high down payments, variable prices, rewards, "totally free" plans, and minimum use plans. Our mission is to help consumers locate the finest electrical power suppliers to fit their individual needs, along with inform customers concerning potential industry challenges.
Texas has electricity consumption of $24 billion a year, the highest possible among the U.S. states. Its annual usage approaches that of Fantastic Britain as well as Spain, as well as if the state were an independent nation, its electrical power market would certainly be the 11th biggest on the planet. Texas produces the most wind electrical power in the U.S., but also has the highest possible Carbon Dioxide Emissions of any kind of state. As of 2012, Texas residential electricity rates rated 31st in the USA and average regular monthly residential electric bills in Texas were the fifth greatest in the nation.
Due to the enhanced use of all-natural gas right away after deregulation, new-era power tools such as wind power and also smart-grid modern technology were substantially aided. Texas' first "renewable portfolio criterion"-- or requirement that the state's energies obtain a particular amount of their power from renewable resource like wind-- was authorized into law in 1999, as component of the same regulation that deregulated the electric market.

Contrasted to the remainder of the nation, data from the U.S. Power Info Administration which publishes annual state electric rates shows that Texas' electric costs did climb above the nationwide average immediately after deregulation from 2003 to 2009, however, from 2010 to 2015 have moved significantly below the national average price per kWh, with a complete price of $0.0863 per kWh in Texas in 2015 vs. $0.1042 across the country, or 17 percent reduced in Texas. In between 2002-2014 the overall price to Texas consumers is approximated to be $24B, approximately $5,100 per household, greater than comparable markets under state regulation.
Green energy plans are sustained 100% by Renewable Energy Certifications (RECs) that are acquired as well as retired in an amount adequate to match your annual consumption. RECs are a tradeable, non-tangible power commodity in the United States that stands for proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electrical power was generated from a qualified eco-friendly energy source like biomass, hydro, solar or wind. Please see your Regards to Solution for even more info.
It has actually additionally provided energy customers the ability to contrast energy rates supplied by different companies. Due to the little distinction in contending prices and slow-moving (yearly or so) "purchasing" process, rate decrease due to competitors was really slow-moving, and also it took a few years to counter the original rise by "typical" electrical service providers as well as relocate to lower rates.
You desire to be clever regarding it when you're going shopping for excellent Texas electricity companies. Your selections surpass Texas electrical energy rates. We not only provides wonderful bargains, however you can register for benefits programs, refer your friends, track your usage by device, and also much more. Need extra persuading? The company repays to the neighborhood as well as has fantastic customer care by phone, Facebook, and Twitter. It was founded in Texas and offers Texans ... and also it's just the awesome Texas brand.
Texas Good Electricity Providers
The firm is the location web site for Texas homeowners and service owners to share their viewpoints and have a voice in the Texas Deregulated Power Market. We use day-to-day updated information concerning power rates in Houston, Dallas, Ft Worth, Arlington, as well as hundreds of other cities in Texas.
The price to defeat seemed to achieve its objective of attracting rivals to the market during the duration through January 1, 2007. It permitted rivals to enter the market without permitting the incumbents to damage them in rate. It has additionally offered power customers the ability to contrast energy prices used by various suppliers. The less-regulated carriers undercut the rate to defeat by just a little margin considered that they have to stabilize lower costs (to draw in consumers and develop market share) with greater costs (required to reinvest in new power plants). Due to the tiny distinction in competing costs as well as slow-moving (annual or two) "acquiring" process, rate reduction as a result of competition was very slow-moving, and also it took a couple of years to offset the original increase by "traditional" electrical suppliers and move to reduced prices.
Due to the enhanced use of natural gas immediately after deregulation, new-era energy devices such as wind power as well as smart-grid modern technology were considerably aided. Texas' first "sustainable portfolio criterion"-- or demand that the state's utilities get a particular amount of their power from renewable resource like wind-- was authorized right into law in 1999, as component of the same regulation that decontrolled the electric market.
Because the Texas electrical energy market open up to competitors in 2002, many Texas homeowners have had the opportunity to select their very own electrical energy service provider. Instead of depending on their regional energy to offer them with power, many Texans can select from a range of affordable suppliers, permitting them to search for the perfect electrical power prepare for their residences and way of livings.
Considering that 2002, around 85% of industrial and industrial consumers have switched over power suppliers at least once. About 40% of residential consumers in decontrolled locations have changed from the former incumbent company to a competitive REP.
Texas currently produces and also takes in more power than any other state in the country. This energy intake results from its size, however the adequate land makes it a major producer of wind power-- an eco-friendly, or eco-friendly, power source. The eco-friendly power created by wind power is readily available to many Texas locals to provide the power in their residence or company.
Fixed-rate supply strategies offer price-protected supply prices for the size of a term arrangement. The cost per kilowatt hr (kWh) will certainly remain the same throughout your term, also if the market rate rises and fall. A fixed-rate supply plan can range from three months to 5 years, so it is essential to find the term size that works best for your situation.

In finding you the most effective Texas electrical prices, we only note electric business that have excellent business security, outstanding service, ecological recognition, as well as clear rates. This safeguards you from providers that might quickly go out of organization, are unattentive to clients, are eco unbalanced, or may wind up billing you a higher price than marketed.
There are several choices for term lengths in the Texas energy market. Different term sizes typically have different cost points, so if you're much more adaptable with the length of your agreement, you can obtain a more affordable rate. If you favor to prevent a long-lasting dedication while longer agreements typically give the benefit of longer-term cost security, agreements with much shorter term lengths are fantastic.
The Texas Us Senate Costs 7, come on 2002, offered 5.6 million Texans the power to choose a retail electric company (REPRESENTATIVE) to provide electricity to their home or business. This expense assisted in an affordable energy industry that 80 percent of Texans can take advantage of today. Power selection is available to residents in Houston, Dallas/Fort Well worth along with other cities in Texas.
Over the previous summer, the general public Utilities Commission of Texas has actually been baffled by Retail Energy Providers making use of rates tricks that fool Texas customers into high regular monthly bills at its Power to Select website. The PUC of Texas' best option was to fine-tune some sort setups, restrict the variety of ASSOCIATE strategies, and also provide a "series of user-friendly PDFs and also video clips intended to assist as well as notify the consumer." The chairman has even lately stated that if the PUCT can not determine an option, after that the payment may just shut down the Power to Pick site.

Variable-rate supply plans, as the name suggests, have a price that differs based on the market price of power. While variable-rate supply plans can permit you to take benefit of market-price lows, there is the opportunity of paying for high supply prices when need is at its optimal.

The Texas Us Senate Costs 7, come on 2002, offered 5.6 million Texans the power to choose a retail electric company (REPRESENTATIVE) to provide electricity to their home or business. This expense assisted in an affordable energy industry that 80 percent of Texans can take advantage of today. Power selection is available to residents in Houston, Dallas/Fort Well worth along with other cities in Texas.


Consequently, 85% of Texas power consumers (those offered by a firm not possessed by an energy or a town cooperative) can select their electricity solution from a range of retail electric suppliers (Associates), consisting of the incumbent energy. The incumbent energy in the location still possesses and maintains the neighborhood high-voltage line (and also is the business to employ the occasion of a power blackout) as well as is exempt to deregulation. Clients offered by cooperatives or metropolitan energies can pick an alternative REPRESENTATIVE only if the utility has actually "chosen in" to deregulation.

With the power to select a supply plan, shopping competitive Texas electrical prices might potentially save you money on your regular monthly electrical energy costs. Best of all, there isn't any type of threat when you shop Texas electricity.

Residents and company owner have actually been able to go shopping Texas electricity supply rates for greater than a decade. When Texans obtained the capability to select their desired energy company in 2002, the electrical sector separated right into 2 components: supply and also shipment. Retail power business in Texas complete for service, supplying a selection of term contracts as well as supply rates for customers to select from.


Thousands of consumers and businesses that have utilized our electrical power rate contrast procedure agree that, when shopping for commercial power or household electrical power rates as well as strategies, our internet site is the one-stop resource for the finest options from top electric companies.
Compared to the remainder of the country, data from the UNITED STATE Energy Information Administration which releases annual state electrical rates reveals that Texas' electrical rates did rise above the national typical instantly after deregulation from 2003 to 2009, yet, from 2010 to 2015 have relocated considerably listed below the nationwide average cost per kWh, with a total price of $0.0863 per kWh in Texas in 2015 vs. $0.1042 nationally, or 17 percent lower in Texas. Between 2002-2014 the overall expense to Texas consumers is estimated to be $24B, an average of $5,100 per house, more than comparable markets under state guideline.
It also reveals whether the price is high or low contrasted to basic electricity market rates. By doing all the estimations for the customer, the business can show consumers what their ideal energy choices are when they shop for Texas electrical energy no matter what TDU area they are in.
Over the past summertime, the Public Utilities Commission of Texas has actually been frustrated by Retail Energy Providers utilizing prices gimmicks that deceive Texas customers right into high monthly costs at its Power to Choose website. The PUC of Texas' finest service was to tweak some sort settings, limit the variety of ASSOCIATE plans, as well as offer a "collection of easy to use PDFs and also video clips intended to educate the customer and also assist." The chairman has also lately claimed that if the PUCT can't figure out an option, after that the payment may just close down the Power to Pick site.
Several retail power carriers in Texas wish to be your option for electrical energy. We are committed to aiding you quickly assess the various electrical energy strategies offered to Texas houses and businesses. We are an independent source of details to aid you compare the best Texas power rates effectively and also effectively.
Although that Texas sees much higher temperatures year round, a lot of families include as well as make use of heating devices. These devices generate warmth in one of 4 means: various other, lp, electrical energy as well as all-natural gas. Just over half of homes in Texas use power to run their heating devices. This is a much better average than the overall average for the nation.
The company is the destination site for Texas homeowners and also company owners to share their point of views and also have a voice in the Texas Deregulated Energy Market. We supply day-to-day upgraded info about power rates in Houston, Dallas, Fort Well Worth, Arlington, as well as hundreds of various other cities in Texas.
Compared to the remainder of the nation, data from the U.S. Energy Details Management which publishes yearly state electrical prices reveals that Texas' electrical prices did rise over the national ordinary immediately after deregulation from 2003 to 2009, yet, from 2010 to 2015 have moved dramatically below the national ordinary price per kWh, with a total expense of $0.0863 per kWh in Texas in 2015 vs. $0.1042 across the country, or 17 percent lower in Texas. Between 2002-2014 the overall cost to Texas consumers is approximated to be $24B, an average of $5,100 per home, greater than comparable markets under state regulation.
The Public Utility Commission (PUC) has an internet site to assist you discover and also compare all the electricity strategies and service providers in your location. You can filter your alternatives based upon your use, your preferred plan kind, and also a number of various other factors. When you've picked the retail electrical power provider that ideal suits your requirements, you can subscribe directly from their web site.
Find Best Electricity Rates In Texas
Texas Electric Supply Company

Power to Choose is a program run by the Utility Commission of Texas. Its goal is to safeguard residents of the state from unjust power costs as well as unregulated Associates, along with develop a strong framework. The program gives an easy to make use of, online device that provide homeowners of the state the possibility to compare prices, strategies and various other energy options. Bear in mind though, you really need to review the small print if you determine to make use of Power to Pick (or any type of various other service, for that issue).
A rate to beat taken care of at the actual wholesale purchase cost of power does not offer potential participants a margin to complete versus incumbent energies. Second, the rate to beat would certainly have to be reasonably reduced, to allow as numerous clients as feasible to proceed to consume power during the shift duration.
The power to choose supply prices from retail energy business in Texas expands to services, not just locals. Service proprietors that appreciate the bottom line must definitely consider going shopping about. To buy Texas electric prices for an organization, call us with your energy use info or complete our straightforward educational type so a power rep can call you with a cost-free custom quote.
The power to select supply rates from retail power business in Texas reaches services, not just citizens. Entrepreneur that respect the lower line should absolutely take into consideration searching. To shop for Texas electrical prices for a service, call us with your energy usage information or submit our basic educational type so an energy rep can call you with a totally free personalized quote.

One preferred impact of the competitors is lower electrical energy prices. In the very first few years after the deregulation in 2002, the residential rate for electricity raised 7 times, with the rate to defeat at around 15 cents per kilowatt hour in 2006. However, while prices to consumers raised 43% from 2002 to 2004, the costs of inputs rose quicker, by 63%, showing that not all boosts have actually been birthed by customers.


According to a 2014 report by the Texas Coalition union Affordable Power (TCAP), "deregulation cost Expense about Concerning22 billion from 2002 to 2012.
We promote for consumers and assess providers in the Texas electricity market for functions as well as characteristics that common power customers may miss out on, such as high down payments, variable prices, rewards, "free" strategies, and minimum usage strategies. Our objective is to assist customers find the most effective electrical power service providers to fit their private demands, in addition to enlighten consumers about potential marketplace pitfalls.

There are several alternatives for term lengths in the Texas power market. Different term lengths typically have various cost points, so if you're a lot more versatile with the length of your contract, you could obtain a less expensive price. Agreements with much shorter term sizes are excellent if you favor to stay clear of a long-term commitment while longer contracts generally offer the benefit of longer-term price stability.
Gone are the days when you needed to get in touch with electrical firms to discover their prices, and also discuss a far better bargain on your very own. Today, the company does the benefit you, managing the whole process of locating the finest Texas power prices and also strategies from companies that have a pedigree of service stability, customer support, eco-friendliness, and monetary transparency. This allows you to buy electrical energy in just a couple of minutes, right from your computer system.
Thousands of consumers and businesses that have actually utilized our power rate comparison process concur that, when purchasing for business power or household power rates and also plans, our internet site is the one-stop resource for the finest alternatives from leading electric providers.
Texas produces the many wind electricity in the U.S., however additionally has the highest Carbon Dioxide Emissions of any state. As of 2012, Texas property electricity prices placed 31st in the United States and average monthly domestic electric bills in Texas were the 5th highest in the nation.
These devices produce warmth in one of 4 ways: other, gas, power and all-natural gas. Simply over fifty percent of households in Texas utilize electrical energy to run their heating units.
For instance, shoppers for Texas power plans in the TX, can discover 12-month strategies for 6.9 cents/kWh in February; by June, electrical energy rates had actually enhanced 29 percent to 9.5 cents/kWh. Since early September, 12-month strategies were up again, to 10.2 cents/kWh-- a 7.5 percent walking from June and also a 49 percent boost simply because February.

Fixed-rate plans: Fixed-rate plans give customers much more security for their regular monthly energy expenses because the rate a client join is the price he or she pays for the size of the plan's agreement. Most change includes usage, though transmission and also shipment charges and local costs also can alter. Because a fixed-rate strategy occasionally extends two-three years, these strategies frequently call for a client credit score check as well as can consist of early termination fees. Fixed-rate strategies, due to the continuing market volatility, possibly are the best selection for many customers.
The Texas Senate Expense 7, come on 2002, gave 5.6 million Texans the power to pick a retail electric supplier (REP) to provide electricity to their residence or organization. This expense promoted a competitive power industry that 80 percent of Texans can take advantage of today. Energy selection is readily available to locals in Houston, Dallas/Fort Worth in addition to other cities in Texas.

One wanted impact of the competitors is reduced electrical energy rates. In the first few years after the deregulation in 2002, the domestic price for electrical energy enhanced 7 times, with the price to defeat at around 15 cents per kilowatt hour in 2006. While prices to consumers enhanced 43% from 2002 to 2004, the expenses of inputs increased faster, by 63%, revealing that not all rises have been birthed by customers.


According to a common financial concept, rates are ideally identified in a transparent and also fair market, and also not by a political or academic body. In deregulation of electrical energy markets, one immediate worry about pricing is that incumbent electrical power providers would certainly undercut the prices of new entrants, stopping competition as well as continuing the existing monopoly of providers. Hence, the SB7 costs introduced a phase-in period during which a rate flooring would certainly be developed (for incumbent power firms) to avoid this predative technique, permitting new market entrants to end up being developed. Brand-new market participants could charge a cost listed below the rate to beat, yet incumbents might not. This duration was to last from 2002 to January 1, 2007. As of 2007 Texas capitalist had utility associates no longer have price to beat tolls.
Texas Compare The Market Gas And Electric

Power to Pick is a program run by the Utility Commission of Texas. Its goal is to secure citizens of the state from unreasonable energy costs and unregulated REPs, along with establish a strong facilities. The program supplies a very easy to use, on-line device that give homeowners of the state the opportunity to compare prices, plans as well as other energy options. Maintain in mind though, you really need to review the great print if you choose to utilize Power to Select (or any type of various other solution, for that matter).
There are several choices for term sizes in the Texas power market. Various term lengths typically have different price points, so if you're much more versatile with the length of your agreement, you could obtain a less costly rate. Contracts with much shorter term sizes are fantastic if you like to avoid a long-term commitment while longer agreements normally offer the advantage of longer-term rate security.
Considering that the Texas electrical energy market available to competitors in 2002, numerous Texas residents have actually had the chance to choose their own electrical power supplier. Rather of depending on their regional utility to offer them with electrical energy, a lot of Texans can pick from a selection of affordable providers, allowing them to go shopping about for the ideal electrical power prepare for their residences and also way of lives.
Fixed-Rate plan: With a fixed-rate strategy, you'll secure a power price for the regard to your contract. One of the most typical term lengths are 6, 12, and also 24 months. Many fixed-rate strategies bill clients a very early termination fee if they switch companies before their contract expires, but your electrical power rate will stay stable through the periods. On the other hand, you may lose out on reduced bills from a decline in power costs. If the cost security of a fixed-rate plan looks like the best option for you, secure your electricity price, which offers complimentary electricity.
Fixed-rate supply strategies offer price-protected supply prices for the length of a term arrangement. The price per kilowatt hr (kWh) will stay the exact same throughout your term, also if the market price rises and fall. A fixed-rate supply plan can vary from 3 months to 5 years, so it is very important to find the term length that works ideal for your scenario.
As a result, 85% of Texas power customers (those offered by a company not owned by an utility or a district cooperative) can pick their electricity service from a range of retail electric suppliers (Associates), consisting of the incumbent energy. The incumbent energy in the area still has and also preserves the neighborhood high-voltage line (and also is the business to call the event of a power outage) and is exempt to deregulation. Clients offered by cooperatives or community utilities can choose an alternate REP just if the energy has "decided in" to deregulation.

The General Public Energy Commission (PUC) has a website to assist you compare and locate all the electrical power strategies as well as suppliers in your location. You can filter your choices based upon your usage, your chosen plan kind, and several various other elements. When you have actually picked the retail electrical energy supplier that finest fits your requirements, you can join directly from their site.
As an example, buyers for Texas power plans in the TX, can discover 12-month strategies for 6.9 cents/kWh in February; by June, electrical power rates had actually increased 29 percent to 9.5 cents/kWh. As of early September, 12-month plans were up once again, to 10.2 cents/kWh-- a 7.5 percent hike from June and a 49 percent boost simply considering that February.
Green power plans are supported 100% by Renewable Power Certifications (RECs) that are bought and retired in an amount adequate to match your annual usage. RECs are a tradeable, non-tangible power commodity in the USA that represents proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was created from a qualified sustainable power source like biomass, hydro, solar or wind. Please see your Terms of Solution to learn more.
A price to defeat fixed at the actual wholesale procurement cost of power does not provide prospective participants a margin to complete versus incumbent energies. Second, the cost to beat would certainly have to be fairly low, to allow as lots of consumers as possible to continue to consume electricity during the change period.
Cheap Gas And Electricity Bills Texas
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